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Photo credit: Andrew Hollander

Gunnison’s prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni) | ESA status: none

Gunnison’s prairie dog

Gunnison’s prairie dogs live in interdependent colonies and communicate using a complex series of calls. Despite their many similarities to humans—they are social, intelligent animals with a sophisticated communication system—this species has been persecuted for decades.

Gunnison’s prairie dog habitat

The range of the Gunnison’s prairie dog includes the “Four Corners” region of Arizona, southwestern Colorado, northwestern New Mexico, and southeastern Utah.

Communication in the colony

Gunnison’s prairie dogs live in family groups called clans, organized into colonies with their neighbors. Their use a complex series of calls to warn each other of predators, such as the coyote, badger, golden eagle, and ferruginous hawk. The prarie dogs have specific calls for specific predators, and each call elicits a different escape response or behavior.

A keystone species

Gunnison’s prairie dogs are considered a keystone species because of the important role they play in their grassland habitat: as well as (unwillingly) providing meals for predators including the endangered black-footed ferret, they dig burrows that host a variety of other animals, including snakes, cottontail rabbits, burrowing owls, beetles, and salamanders, to name a few. Their burrowing behavior turns and aerates the soil and increases water penetration into the ground.

Gunnison’s prairie dog fun facts

Slow multiplier

Female Gunnison’s prairie dogs are receptive to mating for only one day a year. They have one litter of three to four pups per year; typically, only half of these survive to adulthood.

Heavy sleeper

Gunnison’s prairie dogs enter “torpor” in the winter—they curl up and drop their body temperatures to between 41 and 59 degrees Fahrenheit. Their muscles lock and they remain motionless for up to eight days, waking up and moving about their burrows for a day before repeating the cycle.

What are the threats to Gunnison’s prairie dogs?

This intelligent, social, and important animal occupies a tiny fraction of its former range. In 1916, Gunnison’s prairie dog colonies stretched across 24 million acres of the Great Plains. Now, the prairie dogs occupy fewer than 500,000 acres, a decline of almost 98 percent. Mass extermination efforts, federally orchestrated on behalf of the livestock industry, jump-started the prairie dogs’ decline. Currently, they are under siege from introduced sylvatic plague, rampant oil and gas drilling, shooting, poisoning, urban sprawl, and other perils.

What WildEarth Guardians is doing to save the Gunnison’s prairie dog

We are working hard to preserve the Gunnison’s prairie dog. In the past decade, we have fought political interference and misuse of the scientific process in Endangered Species Act decisions. In 2013, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service denied Endangered Species Act protection to the Gunnison’s prairie dog, and we are currently working to create local management plans that reduce or eliminate lethal control of this important species.

“Report from the Burrow 2017: Forecast of the Prairie Dog” (report)
February 2017

“Report from the Burrow 2016: Forecast of the Prairie Dog” (report)
February 2016

“Report from the Burrow 2015: Forecast of the Prairie Dog” (report)
February 2015

“Report from the Burrow 2014: Forecast of the Prairie Dog” (report)
February 2014

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service finds the Gunnison’s prairie dog “not warranted” for listing
November 2013

“Report from the Burrow 2013: Forecast of the Prairie Dog” (report)
February 2013

“Report from the Burrow 2012: Forecast of the Prairie Dog” (report)
February 2012

Gunnison’s prairie dog included in landmark settlement with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
May 2011

“Report from the Burrow 2011: Forecast of the Prairie Dog” (report)
February 2011

Court rules that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service must revisit decision to consider only the “montane” populations of the Gunnison’s prairie dog for listing
September 2010

“Report from the Burrow 2010: Forecast of the Prairie Dog” (report)
February 2010

“Report from the Burrow 2009: Forecast of the Prairie Dog” (report) 
February 2009

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service finds “montane” populations of Gunnison’s prairie dogs “warranted but precluded” for listing, placing them on the ESA candidate list
February 2008

“Report from the Burrow 2008: Forecast of the Prairie Dog” (report)
February 2008

WildEarth Guardians files petition to list Gunnison’s prairie dog under the ESA
February 2004

“Tenth Annual Prairie Dog Conservation Report Card Released”
February 2, 2017

“Ninth Annual Prairie Dog Conservation Report Card Released”
February 2, 2016

“Eighth Annual Prairie Dog Conservation Report Card Released”
February 2, 2015

“Suit Filed Challenging Denial of Protections for Gunnison’s Prairie Dogs”
April 17, 2014

“Seventh Annual Prairie Dog Report Card Released”
February 3, 2014

“Guardians Will Challenge Denial of Protections for Gunnison’s Prairie Dogs”
November 22, 2013

“Gunnison’s Prairie Dogs Denied Endangered Species Act Protections”
November 14, 2013

“State and Federal Agencies Once Again Score Poorly on Prairie Dog Report Card”
February 4, 2013

“State and Federal Agencies Score Poorly on Prairie Dog Report Card”
February 2, 2012

“Federal Court Approves Historic Species Agreement”
September 9, 2011

“Interior Withdraws Appeals on Prairie Dog Cases”
June 15, 2011

“Hope for Endangered Species Act Candidates”
May 10, 2011

“Government Agencies Are Failing the Prairie Dog Test”
February 2, 2011

“Gunnison’s Prairie Dog Gets Second Chance at Federal Shields”
September 30, 2010

“WildEarth Guardians Grades Government on Prairie Dog Protections”
February 2, 2010

“Cattle Growers Support Endangered Species Protection for Prairie Dogs”
October 15, 2009

“WildEarth Guardians Releases Prairie Dog Report Card on Groundhog Day”
February 2, 2009

“Prairie Dog Day Forecast: Unique Ecosystems Will Disappear If Feds & States Don’t Improve”
February 1, 2008

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